Why, I ask, when see that the structure both ventricles almost identical, there being the same apparatus fibres, and braces, and valves, and vessels, and auricles, anå both in the same way in our dissections are found filled with blood similarly black in colour, and coagulated-why, I say, should their uses imagined different, when the action, motion, and pulse both are the same? If the three tricuspid valves placed at the entrance into the right ventricle prove obstacles the reflux the blood into the vena cava, and if the three semilunar valves which are situated at the commencement the pul monary custom assignment writing service artery there, that they may prevent the return the blood into the ventricle why, when find similar structures in connexion with the left ventricle, should deny that they are there for the same end, preventing here the egress, there the regurgitation, the blood?.
And, when have these structures, in points size, form, and situation, almost in every respect the same in the left as in the right ventricle, why should said that things are arranged in the former for the egress and regress spirits, and in the latter or right ventricle, for the blood? The same arrangement cannot held fitted favour or impede the motion the blood and spirits indifferently. And when observe that the passages and vessels are severally in relation one another in point size, the pulmonary artery the pulmonary veins why should the one destined a private pur pose, that furnishing the lungs, the other a public function?. And as Realdus Columbus says, probable that such a quantity blood should required for the nutrition the lungs the vessel that leads them, the vena arteriosa or pulmonary artery being greater capacity than both the iliac veins?. And I ask, as the lungs are close at hand, and in continual motion, and the vessel that supplies them such dimensions, what the use or meaning this pulse the right ventricle? and why was nature reduced the necessity adding another ventricle for the sole When said that the left ventricle draws materials for the formation spirits, air and blood, from the lungs and right sinuses the heart, and in like manner sends spirituous blood into the aorta, drawing fuliginous vapours from there, and sending them the pulmonary vein into the lungs, whence spirits are at the same time obtained for transmission into the aorta, I ask how, and what means the separa tion effected? And how comes that spirits and fuliginous pours can pass hither and thither without admixture or confusion? If the mitral cuspidate valves not prevent the egress fuliginous vapours the lungs, how should they oppose the escape air? And how should the semil unars hinder the regress spirits from the aorta upon each supervening diastole the heart? Above all, how can they say that the spirituous blood sent from the pulmonary veins the left ventricle into the lungs without any obstacle its passage from the mitral valves, when they have previously asserted that the air entered the same vessel from the lungs into the left ventricle, and have brought forward these same mitral valves as obstacles its retrogression? Good God! how should the mitral valves prevent the regurgitation air and not Moreover, when they appoint the pulmonary artery, a vessel great size, with the coverings an artery, none but a kind private and single purpose, that, namely, nourishing the lungs, why should the pulmonary vein, which scarcely large, which has the coats a vein, and and lax, presumed made for many-three or four different-uses? For they will have that air passes through this vessel from the lungs into the left ventricle that fuliginous vapours escape from the heart into the lungs and that a portion the spirituous blood distributed the lungs for their refreshment.
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If they will have that fumes and air-fumes flowing from, air proceeding towards the heart-are transmitted the same conduit, I reply, that nature not wont construct but one vessel, contrive but one way for such contrary motions and purposes, nor anything the If fumes or fuliginous vapours and air permeate this vessel, as they the pulmonary bronchia, wherefore find neither air nor fuliginous vapours when divide the pulmonary vein? Why always find this vessel full sluggish blood, never air, whilst in the lungs find abundance air remaining? If anyone will perform Galen's experiment dividing the trachea a living dog, forcibly distending the lungs with a pair bellows, and then tying the trachea securely, will find, when has laid open the thorax, abundance air in the lungs, even their extreme investing tunic, but none in either the pulmonary veins or the left ventricle the heart. But did the heart either attract air from the lungs, or did the lungs transmit any air the heart, in the living dog, much more ought this the case in the experiment just referred Who, indeed, doubts that, did inflate the lungs a subject in the dissecting-room, would instantly see the air making its way this route, were there actually any such passage for it? But this office the pulmonary veins, namely, the transference air from the lungs the heart, held such online essay writing service importance, that Hieronymus Fabricius Aquapendente, contends that the lungs were made for the sake this vessel, and that constitutes the principal element in their structure. But I should like infornled why, if the pulmonary vein were destined for the conveyance air, has the structure a blood-vessel here. Nature had rather need annular tubes, such as those the bronchi in order that they might always remain open, and not liable collapse and that they might continue entirely free from blood, lest the liquid should interfere with the passage the air, as obviously does when the lungs labour from being either greatly oppressed or loaded in a less degree with phlegm, as they are when the breathing performed with a sibilous or rattling noise. Still less that opinion tolerated which, as a two-fold material, one aerial, one sanguineous, required for the composition vital spirits, supposes the blood ooze through the septum the heart website that will write an essay for you from the right the left ventricle certain hidden porosities, and the air attracted from the lungs through the great vessel, the pulmonary vein and which, consequently, will have that there are numerous porosities in the septum the heart adapted for the transmission the blood. But Hercules! no such pores can demonstrated, nor in fact any such exist.
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For the septum the heart a denser and more compact structure than any portion the body, except the bones and sinews.
But even supposing that there were foramina or pores in this situation, how could one the ventricles extract anything from the other-the left, obtain blood from the right, when see that both ventricles contract and dilate simultaneously? Why should not rather believe paraphrasing words that the right took spirits from the left, than that the left obtained blood from the right ventricle through these foramina? But certainly mysterious and incongruous that blood should supposed most commodiously drawn through a set obscure or invisible ducts, and air through perfectly open passages, at one and the same moment. And why, I ask, recourse had secret and invisible porosities, uncertain and obscure channels, explain the passage the blood into the left ventricle, when there open a way through the pulmonary veins? I own has always appeared extraordinary that they should have chosen make, or rather imagine, a way through the thick, hard, dense, and most compact septum the heart, rather than take that the open pulmonary vein, or even through the lax, soft and spongy substance the lungs at large. Besides, if the blood could permeate the substance the septum, or could imbibed from the ventricles, what use were there for the coronary artery and vein, branches which proceed the septum itself, supply with nourishment? And what especially worthy notice this if in the fætus, where everything more lax and soft, nature saw herself reduced the necessity bringing the blood from the right the left side the heart the foramen ovale, from the vena cava through the pulmonary vein, how should likely that in the adult she should pass commodiously, and with out an effort through the septum the ventricles which has now become Andreas Laurentius, resting the authority Galen and the experience Hollerius, asserts and proves that the serum and pus in empyema, absorbed from the cavities the chest into the pulmonary vein may expelled and got rid with the urine and fæces through the left ventricle the heart and arteries.
He quotes the case a certain person affected with melancholia, and who suffered from repeated fainting fits, who was relieved from the paroxysms passing a quantity turbid, fetid and acrid urine.
But died at last, worn thesis writing service reviews out disease and when the body came opened after death, no fluid like that had micturated was discovered either in the bladder or the kidneys but in the left ventricle the heart and cavity the thorax plenty was met with. And then Laurentius boasts that had predicted the cause the symptoms. For own part, however, I cannot but wonder, since had divined and predicted that heterogeneous matter could discharged the course indicates, why could not or would not perceive, and inform that, in the natural state things, the blood might commodiously transferred from the lungs the left ventricle the heart the very same route.
Since, therefore, from the foregoing considerations and many others the same effect, plain that what has heretofore been said concerning the motion and function the heart and arteries must appear obscure, good thesis statements inconsistent, or even impossible him who carefully considers the entire subject, would proper look more narrowly into the matter contemplate the motion the heart and arteries, not only in man, but in all animals that have hearts and also, frequent appeals vivisection, and much ocular inspection, investigate and discern I first gave mind vivisections, as a means discovering the motions and uses the heart, and sought discover these from actual inspection, and not from the writings others, I found the task truly arduous, full difficulties, that I was almost tempted think, with Fracastorius, that the motion. the heart was only comprehended For I could neither rightly perceive at first when the systole and vhen the diastole took place, nor when and where dilatation and contraction occurred, reason the rapidity the motion, which in many animals accomplished in the twinkling an eye, coming and going like a flash lightning that the systole presented itself now from this point, now from that the diastole the same and then everything was reversed, the motions occurring, as seemed, variously and confusedly together. My mind was therefore greatly unsettled nor did I know vhat I should myself conclude, nor what believe from others. I was not surprised that Andreas Laurentius should have written that the motion the heart was as perplexing as the flux and reflux Euripus had appeared Aristotle. At length, using greater and daily diligence and investigation making frequent inspection many and various animals, and collating numerous observations, I thought that I had attained the truth, that I should extricate myself and escape from this labyrinth, and that I had discovered what I much desired, both the motion and the use the heart and arteries. From that time I have not hesitated expose views upon these subjects, not only in private friends, but also in public, in anatomical lectures, after the manner the Academy old.