A vein and an artery, both styled veins the ancients, and that not without reason, as Galen has remarked, for the artery the vessel which carries the blood from the heart the body at large, the vein the present day bringing back from the general system the heart the former the conduit from, the latter the channel the heart the latter contains the cruder, effete blood, rendered unfit for nutrition the former transmits the digested, perfect, peculiarly nutritive fluid. THAT THERE IS A CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD IS CONFIRMED FROM BUT lest anyone should say that give them words only, and make mere specious assertions without any foundation, and desire innovate without sufficient cause, three points present themselves for confirmation, which, being stated, I conceive that the truth I contend for will follow necessarily, and appear as a thing obvious all.
First, the blood incessantly transmitted the action the heart from the vena cava the arteries in such quantity that cannot supplied from the ingesta, and in such a manner that the whole must very quickly pass through the organ second, the blood under the influence online paper writing services the arterial pulse enters and impelled in a continuous, equable, and incessant stream through every part and member the body, in much larger quantity than were sufficient for nutrition, or than the whole mass fluids could supply third, the veins in like manner return this blood incessantly the heart from parts and members the body. These points proved, I conceive will manifest that the blood circulates, revolves, propelled and then returning, from the heart the extremities, from the extremities the heart, and thus that performs a kind circular Let assume, either arbitrarily or from experiment, the quantity blood which the left ventricle the heart will contain when distended, say, two ounces, three ounces, or one ounce and a half-in the dead body I have found hold upwards two ounces.
Let assume further how much less the heart will hold in the contracted than in the dilated state and how much blood will project into the aorta upon writing a dissertation each contraction and all the world allows that with the systole something always projected, a necessary consequence demonstrated in the third chapter, and obvious from the structure the valves and let suppose as approaching the truth that the fourth, or fifth, or sixth, or even but the eighth part its charge thrown into the artery at each contraction this would give either half an ounce, or three drachms, or one drachm blood as propelled the heart at each pulse into the aorta which quantity, reason the valves at the root the vessel, can no means return into the ventricle.
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Now, in the course half an hour, the heart will have made more than one thousand beats, in some as many as two, three, and even four thousand.
Multiplying the number drachms propelled the number pulses, shall have either one thousand half ounces, or one thousand times three drachms, or a like proportional quantity blood, according the amount which assume as propelled with each stroke the heart, sent from this organ into the artery-a larger quantity in every case than contained in the whole body! In the same way, in the sheep or dog, say but a single scruple blood passes with each stroke the heart, in one half-hour should have one thousand scruples, or about three pounds and a half, blood injected into the aorta but the body neither animal contains above four pounds blood, a fact which I have myself ascertained in the case Upon this supposition, therefore, assumed merely as a ground for reasoning, see the whole mass blood passing through the heart, from the veins the arteries, and in like manner through But let said that this does not take place in half an hour. but in an hour, or even in a day any way, still manifest that more blood passes through the heart in consequence its action, than can either supplied the whole the ingesta, or than can contained in the veins at the same moment.
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Nor can allowed that the heart in contracting sometimes propels and sometimes does not propel, or at most propels but very little, a mere nothing, or an imaginary something all this, indeed, has already been refuted, and besides, contrary both sense and reason. For if a necessary effect the dilatation the heart that its ventricles become filled with blood, equally that, contracting, these cavities should expel their contents and this not in any trifling measure.
For neither are the conduits small, nor the contractions few in number, but frequent, and always in some certain proportion, whether a third or purchase term papers essays a sixth, or an eighth, the total capacity the ventricles, that a like proportion blood must expelled, and a like proportion received with each stroke the heart, the capacity the ventricle contracted always bearing a certain relation the capacity the ventricle when dilated. And since, in dilating, the ventricles cannot supposed get filled with nothing, or with an imaginary something, in contracting they never expel nothing or aught imaginary, but always a certain something, blood, in proportion the amount the contraction.
Whence concluded that if at one stroke the heart man, the or the sheep, ejects but a single drachm blood and there are one thousand strokes in half an hour, in this interval there will have been ten pounds five ounces expelled if with each stroke two drachms are expelled, the quantity would, course, amount twenty pounds and ten ounces if half an ounce, the quantity would come forty-one pounds and eight ounces and were there one ounce, would as much as eighty-three pounds and four ounces the whole which, in the course one-half hour, would have been transfused from the veins the arteries.
The actual quantity blood expelled at each stroke the heart, and the circumstances under which either greater or less than ordinary, I leave for particular determination afterwards, from numerous observations which I have made the subject. Meantime this much I know, and would here proclaim all, that the blood transfused at one time in larger, at another in smaller, custom handwriting paper quantity and that the circuit the blood accomplished now more rapidly, now more slowly, according the temperament, age, etc. the individual, external and internal circumstances naturals and non-naturals-sleep, rest, food, exercise, affections the mind, and the like. But, supposing even the smallest quantity blood passed through the heart and the lungs with each pulsation, a vastly greater amount would still thrown into the arteries and whole body than could any possibility supplied the food consumed.
It could furnished in no other way than making a circuit and returning. This truth, indeed, presents itself obviously before vhen consider vhat happens in the dissection living animals the great artery need not divided, but a very small branch only as Galen even proves in regard man, have the whole the blood in the body, as well that the veins as the arteries, drained away in the course no long time-some half-hour or less. Butchers are well aware the fact and can bear witness for, cutting the throat an and dividing the vessels the neck, in less than a quarter an hour they have all the vessels bloodless-the whole mass blood has escaped. The same thing also occasionally occurs with great rapidity in performing amputations and removing best freelance writer websites tumors Nor would this argument lose its force, did anyone say that in killing animals in the shambles, and performing amputations, the blood escaped in equal, if not perchance in larger quantity the veins than the arteries. The contrary this statement, indeed, certainly the truth the veins, in fact, collapsing, and being without any propelling power, and further, because the impediment the valves, as I shall show immediately, pour out but very little blood whilst the arteries spout forth with force abundantly, impetuously, and as if were propelled a syringe. And then the experiment easily tried leaving the vein untouched and only dividing the artery in the neck a sheep or dog, when will seen with what force, in what abundance, and how quickly, the vhole blood in the body, the veins as well as the arteries, emptied. But the arteries receive blood from the veins in no other way than transmission through the heart, as have already seen that if the aorta tied at the base the heart, and the carotid or any other artery opened, no one will now surprised find empty, and the veins only replete with blood. And now the cause manifest, why in our dissections usually find large a quantity blood in the veins, little in the arteries why there much in the right ventricle, little in the left, which probably led the ancients believe that the arteries as their name implies contained nothing but spirits during the life an animal.
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