Farther, in this foramen ovale, from that part which regards the pulmonary vein, there a thin tough membrane, larger than the opening, extended like an operculum or cover this membrane in the adult blocking the foramen, and adhering all sides, finally closes and almost obliterates every trace In the fætus, however, this membrane contrived that falling loosely upon itself, permits a ready access the lungs and heart, yielding a passage the blood which streaming from the cava, and hindering the tide at the same time from flowing back into that vein. All things, in short, permit believe that in the embryo the blood must constantly pass this foramen from the vena cava into the pulmonary vein, and from thence into the left auricle the heart and having once entered Another union that the pulmonary artery, paper writing help online and effected when that vessel divides into two branches after its escape from the fight ventricle the heart. It as if the two trunks already mentioned a third were superadded, a kind arterial canal, carried obliquely from the pulmonary artery, perforate and terminate in the great artery or aorta. So that in the dissection the embryo, as were, two aortas, or two roots the great artery, appear springing from the heart. This canal shrinks gradually after birth, and after a time becomes withered, and finally almost removed, like the The arterial canal contains no membrane or valve direct or impede the flow blood in this or in that direction for at the root the pulmonary artery, which the arterial canal the continuation in the fætus, there are three semilunar valves, which open from within outwards, and oppose no obstacle the blood flowing in this. direction or from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery and aorta but they prevent all regurgitation from the aorta or pulmonic vessels back upon the right ventricle closing with perfect accuracy, they essay writting services oppose an effectual obstacle everything the kind in the embryo.

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So that there also reason believe that when the heart contracts, the blood regularly propelled the canal or passage indicated from the right ventricle into the aorta.

What commonly said in regard these two great communications, wit, that they exist for the nutrition the lungs, both improbable and inconsistent seeing that in the adult they are closed abolished, and consolidated, although the lungs, reason their heat and motion, must then presumed require a larger supply nourishment.

The same may said in regard the assertion that the heart in the embryo does not pulsate, that neither acts nor moves, that nature was forced make these communications for the nutrition the lungs.

This plainly false for simple inspection the incubated egg, and embryos just taken out the uterus, shows that the heart moves in them precisely as in adults, and that nature feels no such necessity.


have myself repeatedly seen these motions, and Aristotle likewise witness their reality. The pulse, observes, inheres in the very constitution the heart, and appears from,t-he beginning as learned both from the dissection living animals and the formation the chick in the egg. But further observe that the passages in question are not only pervious the period birth in man, as well as in other animals, as anatomists in general have described them, but for several months subsequently, in some indeed for several years, not say for the whole course life for example, in the goose, snipe, and various write my college paper for me birds and many the smaller animals. And this circumstance perhaps, that imposed upon Botallus, who thought had discovered a new passage for the blood from the vena cava into the left ventricle the heart and I own that when I met with the same arrangement in one the larger members the mouse family, in the adult state, I was myself at first led something a like From this will understood that in the human embryo, and in the embryos animals in which the communications are not closed, the same thing happens, namely, that the heart its motion propels the blood obvious and open passages from the vena cava into the aorta through the cavities both the ventricles, the right one receiving the blood from the auricle, and propelling the pulmonary artery and its continuation, named the ductus arteriosus, into the aorta the left, in like manner, charged the contraction its auricle, which has received its supply through the foramen ovale from the vena cava, contracting, and projecting the blood through the root the aorta into the trunk that vessel. In embryos, consequently, whilst the lungs are yet in a state inaction, performing no function, subject no motion any more than if they had not been present, nature uses the two ventricles the heart as if they formed but one, for the transm,ission the blood.

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The condition the embryos those animals which have lungs, whilst these organs are yet in abeyance and not employed, the same as that those animals which have no lungs. So clearly appears in the case the fætus that the heart its action transfers the blood from the vena cava into the aorta, and that a route as obvious and open, as if in the adult the two ventricles were made communicate the removal their septum. We therefore find that in the greater number animals-in all, indeed, at a certain period their existence he channels for the transmission the blood through the heart are conspicuous. But have inquire why in some creatures-those, namely, that have,varm blood, and that have attained the adult age, man among the number-we should not conclude that the same thing accomplished through the substance the lungs, which in the embryo, and at a time when the function these organs in abeyance, nature effects the direct passages described, and which, indeed, she seems compelled adopt through want a passage the lungs or why should better for nature always does that which best that she should close the various open routes which she had formerly made use in the embryo and fætus, and still uses in all other animals. Not only does she thereby open no new ap parent channels for the passages the blood, but she even shuts And now the discussion brought this point, that they who inquire dissertation writers usa into the ways which the blood reaches report writing service the left ventricle the heart and pulmonary veins from the vena cava, will pursue the wisest course if they seek. dissection discover the causes why in the larger and more perfect animals mature age nature has rather chosen make the blood percolate the parenchyma the lungs, than, as in other instances, chosen a direct and obvious course for I assume that no other path or mode transit can entertained. It must because the larger and more perfect animals are warmer, and when adult their heat greater-ignited, as I might say, and requiring damped or mitigated, that the blood sent through the lungs, in order that may tempered the air that inspired, and prevented from boiling and becoming extinguished, or something else the sort. But determine these matters, and explain them satisfactorily, were enter a speculation in regard the office the lungs and the ends for which they exist. Upon such a subject, as well as upon what pertains respiration, the necessity and use the air, etc.

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