Were pain in any way the cause, how should happen that, with the arm bound above the elbow, the hand and fingers should swell below the bandage, and their veins become distended? The pressure the bandage certainly prevents the blood from getting there the veins.
And then, wherefore there neither swelling nor repletion the veins, nor any sign or symptom attraction or affiux, above the ligature? But this the obvious cause the preternatural attraction and swelling below the bandage, and in the hand and fingers, that the blood entering abundantly, and with force, but cannot pass out Now not this the cause all tumefaction, as indeed A vicenna has and all oppressive redundancy in parts, that the access them open, but the egress from them closed? Whence comes that they are gorged and tumefied. And may not the same thing happen in local inflammations, where, long as the swelling the increase, and has not reached its extreme term, a full pulse felt in the part, especially when the disease the more acute kind, and the swelling usually takes place most rapidly. But these are matters for after discussion.
Or does this, which occurred in own case, happen from the same cause? Thrown from a carriage upon one occasion, I struck forehead a blow upon the place where a twig the artery advances from the temple, and immediately, within the time in which twenty beats could have been made I felt a tumour the size an egg developed, without either heat or any great pain the near vicinity the artery had caused the blood effused into the bruised part with unusual And now, too, understand why in phlebotomy apply our ligature above the part that punctured, not below did the flow come from above, not from below, the constriction in this case would not only college essay writing services no service, but would prove a positive hindrance would have applied below the orifice, in order have the flow more free, did the blood descend the veins from superior inferior parts but as elsewhere forced through the extreme arteries into the extreme veins, and the return in these last opposed the ligature, they fill and swell, and being thus filled and distended, they are made capable proj ecting their charge with force, and a distance, when anyone them suddenly punctured but the ligature being slackened, a channels thus left open, the blood forthwith no longer escapes, save drops and, as all the world knows, if in performing phlebotomy the bandage either slackened too much or the limb bound too tightly, the blood escapes without force, because in the one case the returning channels are not adequately obstructed in the other the channels influx, the arteries, are impeded. THAT THERE IS A CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD IS SHOWN FROl THE IF these things another point which I have already referred, the continual passage the blood through the heart will also confirmed.
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We have seen, that the blood passes from the arteries into the veins, not from the veins into the arteries have seen, farther, that almost the whole the blood may withdrawn from a puncture made in one the cutaneous veins the arm if. a bandage properly applied used have seen, still farther, that the blood flows freely and rapidly that not only the whole quantity which was contained in the arm beyond the ligature, and before the puncture was made, discharged, but the whole which contained in the body, both that the arteries and that the veins. Whence must admit, first, that the blood sent along with an impulse, and that urged with force below the ligature for escapes with force, which force receives from the pulse and power the heart for the force and motion the blood are essay writing service us derived from the heart alone. Second, that the afflux proceeds from the heart, and through the heart a course from the great veins for gets into the parts below the ligature through the arteries, not through the veins and the arteries nowhere receive blood from the veins, nowhere receive blood save and except from the left ventricle the heart.
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Nor could large a quantity blood drawn from one vein a ligature having been duly applied, nor with such impetuosity, such readiness, such celerity, unless through the medium the impelling power the heart. But if all things as they are now represented, shall feel ourselves at liberty calculate the quantity the blood, and reason its circular motion. Should anyone, for instance, performing phlebotomy, suffer the blood flow in the manner usually does, with force and freely, for some half hour or no question but that the greatest part the blood being abstracted, faintings and syncopes would ensue, and that not only would the arteries but the great veins also nearly emptied their contents. It only consonant with reason conclude that in the course the half hour hinted much as has escaped has also passed from the great veins through the write my essay for me heart into the aorta.
And further, if calculate how many ounces flow through one arm, or how many pass in twenty or thirty pulsations under the medium ligature, shall have some grounds for estimating how much passes through the other arm in the same space time how much through both lower extremities, how much through the neck either side, and through all the other arteries and veins the body, all which have been supplied with fresh blood, and as this blood must have passed through the lungs and ventricles the heart, and must have come from the great veins,-we shall perceive that a circulation absolutely necessary, seeing that the quantities hinted at cannot supplied immediately from the ingesta, and are vasùy more than can requisite for the mere nutrition the parts. It still further observed, that in practising phlebotomy the truths contended for are sometimes confirmed in another way for having tied the arm properly, and made the puncture duly, still, if from alarm or any other causes, a state faintness super-venes, in which the heart always pulsates more languidly, the blood does not flow freely, but distils drops only. The reason that with a somewhat greater than usual resistance offered the transit the blood the bandage, coupled with the weaker action the heart, and its diminished impelling power, the stream cannot make its way under the ligature and farther, owing the weak and languishing state the heart, the blood not transferred in such quantity as wont from the veins the arteries through the sinuses that organ. So also, and for the same reasons, are the menstrual fluxes women, and indeed hemorrhages every kind, controlled. And now, a contrary state things occurring, the patient getting rid his fear and recovering his courage, the pulse strength in. creased, the arteries begin again beat with greater force, and dri the blood even into the part that bound that the blood now springs from the puncture in the vein, and flows in a continuous THE THIRD POSITION IS CONFIRMED AND THE CIRCULATION OF THE THUS far have spoken the quantity blood passing through the heart and the lungs in the centre the body, and in like manner from the arteries into the veins in the peripheral parts and the body at large.
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We have yet explain, however, in what manner the blood finds its way back the heart from the extremities the veins, and how and in what way these are the only vessels that convey the blood from the external the central parts which done, I conceive that the three fundamental propositions laid down for the circulation the blood will plain, well established, obviously true, that they may claim general credence. Now the remaining position will made sufficiently clear from the valve which are found in the cavities the veins themselves, from the uses these, and from experiments cognizable the senses. The celebrated Hieronymus Fabricius Aquapendente, a most skilful anatomist, and venerable old man, as the learned Riolan will have Jacobus Silvius, first gave representations the valves in the veins, which consist raised or loose portions the inner membranes these vessels, extreme delicacy, and a sigmoid or semilunar shape. They are situated at different distances from one another, and diversely in different individuals they are connate at the sides the veins they are directed upwards towards the trunks the veins the two-for there are for the thesis papers for sale most part two together regard each other, mutually touch, and are ready come into contact their edges, that if anything attempts pass from the trunks into the branches the veins, or from the greater vessels into the less, they completely prevent they are farther arranged, that the horns those that succeed are opposite the middle the convexity those that precede, and alternately. The discoverer these valves did not rightly understand their use, nor have succeeding anatomists added anything our knowledge for their office no means eXplained when are told that hindel the blood, its weight, from all flowing into inferior parts for the edges the valves in the jugular veins hang downwards, essay conclusion help and are contrived that they prevent the blood from rising upwards the valves, in a word, not invariably look upwards, but always toward the trunks the veins, invariably towards the seat the heart.