It should, therefore, remembered, that the task imposed those who study the earth's history requires no ordinary share discretion for are precluded from collating the corresponding parts the system things as exists now, and as existed at former periods.
If were inhabitants another element-if the great ocean were our domain, instead the narrow limits the land, our difficulties would considerably lessened while, the other hand, there can little doubt, although the reader may, perhaps, smile at the bare suggestion such an idea, that an amphibious being, vho should possess our faculties, would still more easily arrive at sound theoretical opinions in geology, since might behold, the one hand, the decomposition rocks in the atmosphere, or the transportation matter running water and, the other, examine the deposition sediment in the sea, and the imbedding animal and vegetable remains in new strata. He might ascertain, direct observation, the action a mountain torrent, as well as a marine current might compare the products volcanos poured out upon the land with those ejected beneath the waters and might mark, the one hand, the growth the forest, and, the other, that the coral reef. Yet, even with these advantages, would liable fall into the greatest errors, when endeavouring reason rocks subterranean origin. He would seek in vain, within the sphere his observation, for any direct analogy the process their formation, and would therefore in danger attributing them, vherever they are upraised view, But if may allowed far indulge the imagination, as suppose a being entirely confined the nether world-some dusky melancholy sprite, like Umbriel, who could flit sooty pinions pay people to write papers the central earth, but who was never permitted sully the fair face light, and emerge into the regions water and air and if this being should busy himself in investigating the structure the globe, might letter writing services frame theories the exact converse those usually adopted human philosophers. He might infer that the stratified rocks, containing shells and other organic remains, were the oldest created things, belonging some original and nascent state the planet. Of these masses, might say, whether they consist loose incoherent sand, soft clay, or solid stone, none have been formed in modern times. Every year some them are broken and shattered earthquakes, or melted volcanic fire and when they cool down academic writing help center slowly from a state fusion, they assume a new and more crystalline form, no longer exhibiting that stratified disposition and those curious impressions and fantastic markings, which they were previously characterised.
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This process cannot have been carried for an indefinite time, for in that case all the stratified rocks would long ere this have been fused and crystallised. It therefore probable that the whole planet once consisted these mysterious and curiously bedded formations at a time when the volcanic fire had not yet been brought into activity. custom essays online Since that period there seems have been a gradual development heat and this augmentation may expect continue till the whole globe shall in a state fluidity, or shall consist, in those parts which are not melted, volcanic and Such might the system the Gnome at the very time that the followers Leibnitz, reasoning what they saw the outer surface, might teaching the opposite doctrine gradual refrigeration, and averring that the earth had begun its career as a fiery comet, and might destined hereafter become a frozen The tenets the schools the nether and the upper world would directly opposed each other, for both would partake the prejudices inevitably resulting from the continual contemplation one class phenomena the exclusion another.
Man observes the annual decomposition crystalline and igneous rocks, and may sometimes see their conversion into stratified deposits but cannot vitness the reconversion the sedimentary into the crystalline subterranean heat. He in the habit regarding all the sedimentary rocks as more recent than the unstratified, for the same reason that may suppose him fall into the opposite error if the origin the For more than two centuries the shelly strata the Subapennine hills afforded matter speculation the early geologists Italy, and few them had any suspicion that similar deposits were then forming in the neighbouring sea.
Some imagined that the strata, rich in organic remains, instead being due secondary agents, had been created in the beginning things the fiat the Almighty. Others, as have seen, ascribed the imbedded fossil bodies some plastic power which resided in the earth in the early ages the world.
In what manner were these dogmas at length exploded? The fossil relics vere carefully compared with their living analogues, and all doubts as their organic origin were eventually discount essay writing service dispelled. So, also, in regard the nature the containing beds mud, sand, and limestone those parts the bottom the sea were examined where shells are now becoming annually entombed in new deposits. Donati explored the bed the Adriatic, and found the closest resemblance between the strata there forming, and those vhich constituted hills above a thousand feet high in various parts the Italian peninsula. He ascertained dredging that living testacea were there grouped together in precisely the same manner as were their fossil analogues in the inland strata and while some the recent shells the Adriatic were becoming incrusted paper writing services best with calcareous rock, observed that others had been newly buried in sand and clay, precisely as fossil shells occur in the Subapennine hills.
In like manner, the volcanic rocks the Vicentin had been studied in the beginning the last century but no geologist sus. pected, before the time Arduino, that these were composed ancient submarine lavas. During many years controversy, the popular opinion inclined a belief that basalt and rocks the same class had been precipitated from a chaotic fluid, or an ocean which rose at successive periods over the continents, charged with the com ponent elements the rocks in question. Few will now dispute that would have been difficult invent a theory more distant from the truth yet must cease wonder that gained many proselytes, when remember that its claims probability arose partly from the very circumstance its confirming the assumed want analogy between geological causes and those now in action. By what train investigations were geologists induced at length reject these views, and assent the igneous origin the trappean formations? By an examination volcanos now active, and comparing their structure and the composition their lavas with The establishment, from time time, numerous points identification, drew at length from geologists a reluctant admission, that there was more correspondence between the condition the globe at remote eras and now, and more uniformity in the laws which have regulated the changes its surface, than they at first imagined. If, in this state the science, they still despaired reconciling every class geological phenomena the operations ordinary causes, even straining analogy the utmost limits credibility, might have expected, at least, that the balance probability would now have been presumed incline towards the close analogy the ancient and modern causes.